Some portions of this English text have been modified by the Pervin Tree that is originally translated by Vladislav B. Bondarev.



I was born on the 5th day of April, 1861 in the city of Berdichev, Kiev region in Ukraine. My father, a descendent from Byeloruss, who became an orphan in his early years, left all alone, hiding from a recruitment, a mandatory military conscription, which under Tsar Nicholas I (1740-1810) was a very harsh and a very long service - 25 years, ran to Berdichev, which was back then, a Jewish center, in order to avoid the recruitment and to look for a job. He was not trained in any trade and therefore worked daily, doing all sorts of menial jobs available, receiving for his heavy work the least amount of money, and living the life of deprivation. After some time, have managed to save a few rubles, by depriving himself of the basic necessities and by receiving some small inheritance from his first wife, he was able to buy from a local merchant a right to deliver water from a river to a set number of landowners and leaseholders. In the present time such right-trade sound anachronistic and may be even absurd, but back then, this practice existed in the Jews tradition. Though is not written but a strictly followed rule according to which many people of free-trades, like, for example, the butchers of cattle and poultry according to the Jewish Talmud ritual kantors and servants in synagogues and other prayer houses, rabbis and other members of religious congregation, the teachers of the Jewish God law, so called melamedoves, the school owners, midwives (the privileged gynecologists did not existed at that time yet, with a few exceptions), the superintendents of  synagogues saunas etc., inherited from their parents, from generation to generation, a right to conduct their family business in their local area in a particular circle of customers, who completely depended on them. And this right to perform one or the other work was owned and could be easily sold as a property. A Jew, who studied the trade of butchering cattle or poultry according to Talmud, who has passed an appropriate examination, and survive a strict test of the knowledge of his trade before the panel of (Sonmom) strict rabbis of authentic religious institution, could be starving with a diploma in his pocket without being able to practice his trade until he bought the right (khazuka) from the relatives of deceased butcher or rabbis, kantora, etc. And my deceased parent bought such a right to deliver water in some district of the city of Berdichev, though without taking any examination. In the central part of the city in its wealthy districts, the water deliverers earned good money they had their own houses and land properties and lived well-off but it was not the case on the outskirts of the city where my father's district was. He got married and they lived together for two years until his wife got sick and died leaving him a son who was on the 10-11th year of his life.

My mother, Shifra, lost her father in her early years and lived with the mother-widow in poverty and deprivation in the town Chartoriyska, Lutskiy county, Volinskiy region. When she grew up, she went with her mother to the city of Berdichev in a search of a better life. There, they both found service jobs; the old lady as a cook and my mother as a maid for a very wealthy doctor. Gifted with some intellect and a fast thinker, she stayed in the house of the doctor for several years, was cultivated in this intellectual environment though still illiterate, and left the house as a civilized girl. Without any inheritance, however, in the rank of a servant, she, with heavy heart, married my father -- a widower. To get married was not as easy then as in the present days, when young people, boys and girls, ran into each other, meet at work factories, plants, on collective meetings, in activity circles; meet, get know each other, talk, get closer, decide and register that is consolidate their union through an official registration in ZAGS( the Federal House of Marriages Registration). That was not the case back then, under a completely different organization of the social structure, in a society divided into social classes, especially in the Jewish ghettoes. The very strict religious guidelines, adherence to many cultural moral rules, as well as strict control did not allow any personal contacts between men and women in factories and plants, existing in very few numbers back then. The women's labor practically was not used yet, and the arrangement of marriages were organized by special factors, svakhys. In the interests of adherence to chastity and the guidelines of Saint Fathers, Jews used to practice marriages at an early age. To the service of intelegencia, by the way, a wedding newspapers was printed, all ridden with fancy ads. After some years of living in the house of an intelligent family the life with a laity my father, the man of older years, life of work and constant deprivations, the poor environment of the uncomfortable dwelling, could not appeal to a young, emotional, somewhat intellectually developed, who had seen a better life. She got lonely, helplessly shedding her bitter tears over her unhappy and tragic fate. My birth, her first and the only son, brought some color into her life and she somewhat calmed down.

At that time, as I vaguely remember, an unfortunate event took place: the horse the bread winner of the poor,  died. My parents borrowed unbelievably high interest rate money, from a merchant, with a weekly repayment option, bought another horse, but one misfortune night the horse was stolen. All searches were in vain and poor father had no choice but to deliver water in big wooden buckets carrying them on his shoulders, on wooden stick with the leather padding from early morning until late in the evening. But his petty earning was not enough to make living and the family was growing a sister was born, and then another.

On the fifth year of my life, I was sent to a  traditional kheder, the Jewish primary school, where in a crowded, dirty, stuffy, unorganized room with a dirt floor more than a hundred children were taught in turns, in shifts, one younger than another.  Some families sent their children into these schools even in their earlier years so they would not bother their parents at home, and the children were dragged with force, carried in their arms by so called  begelfers, the teacherfs assistants.  The latter did not receive any salary for their assistance, but by serving to their wealthy and well respected masters, praying and reciting prayers with their children every morning, they received monthly monetary rewards in addition to food.  There were also young begelfers -- teenagers, who delivered to the children their food and took them home in the evening, after the school.

This learning room, furnished with the long, wooden benches without back supports, served also as a dining room for the rebe family; in the room sultry air, stench, noise, screams and cries of beaten children.  Grammar was taught using archaic methods, forced into the heads of the intimidated children for a period of several years until they reached the age of 7-8 -years old, the age when they were transferred to secondary school.  A vicious rebe, tall skinny with a sickly yellowish tinge to his face, in a soiled, worn out yermolka, in a style of some sort of Turkish "phesky", on his head, with long paices (long whiskers ) who received about three rubles per semester, and from poor families even less than that, beat mercilessly the innocent children, whipped them with a stick, belt and strictly ordered them not to tell their parents about these executions.  The intimidated and scared kids kept their deep silence. In order to open such a school or any other school, there were no any formal requirements for the license.  One only had to present a proof of an inspection from a local district authority, three rubles in addition to his personal photo, after that, permission for one year was usually granted with an option of its renewal.  The schools were divided into three categories: elementary, secondary, and high schools.  Instructions were given only orally, with books, but no writing was taught.  As a consequence of such method of education, in the environment of complete literacy when any Jew, even from the poorest families, could read a printed text of prayers, he at the same time could not even sign his own name. 

In the lower grade schools, for the period of several years, students were taught only short prayers and grammar, that is, only dull, mechanical readings without any explanation of vocabulary.  In the middle and higher schools, where the number of students was limited, the Bible with many comments was taught and, predominantly, Talmud which contains the arts and sciences of the Eastern Jews of the time of the Iyudey and Israel kingdom in Turkey in Palestine, the time of the grandiose Temple in Jerusalem built by the wise king Solomon where the crowds of orthodox Jews from all places of the kingdom  flocked to bring their sacrifices and to pray.

The instructions, classes in the kheders, took place from early mornings until late evenings, and during the fall and winter seasons in the evening time as well.  After the classes, the students would go home with flash lights, through muddy roads, slush, and crunching snow.  The studies took place under a dim light of a burning pig fat candle: kerosene was not widely utilized at that time yet.  The subjects of teaching,  besides the Bible and Talmud, were the King David's psalms, songs of King Solomon, poems, the eulogies of profits, special benedictions before the tasting of different ripening fruits and vegetables, before consumption of foods and  drinks in general, occurrences of nature, like, for example, thunder, lightning, rain, full moon, the holyday prayers etc.  Before the arrival of New Year Eve and Judgment Day, the vigilant nights took place that is citing of some special prayers to repent sins, and the boys, who achieved their religious adulthood 13 years old, had to attend those nights, to equally follow all the established ceremonies.  Kheder resembled an auditorium with the only difference that the students did not listen to their teacher in silence, but loudly repeated every word after him, creating clamor beyond-believe, filling the room with an unbelievable noise. As I already mentioned, there were no written notes or writing assignments.  So the students learned neither the Jewish language nor especially its grammar: that was strictly prohibited by the orthodox priests – rabbis, the religious clergy.  The rich Jews: money lenders, contractors, business holders, travel salesmen (kommivoyazhors), agents, commissioners, lawyers etc., - used to teach their children the old Jewish language at home using modern text books.  They would introduce themselves to the rich Jewish literature, and subscribe for the Jewish newspapers and magazines, but this was only a small advanced part of the Jewish community who were looked down upon as the religious outcasts and whom the rest of Jews tried to avoid as they would the Satan himself.  The primary duty of melameds was a religious education of the youth population, to observe with a watchful eye that the youth would adhere to all religious ritual, citing morning and evening prayers.  During a morning prayer, a teenage boy, who achieved his religious adulthood of 13 years of age, would put on his head and left arm filacteriis gTorilinh, the leather cubes with long strings which contained, written on parchment, the most important extracts from Moses law.  Religion played a dominant part in the life of a Jew from the day of his birth, appearance to this world.  The circumcision ritual was performed on a new born Jewish boy on the eighth day of his birth. The special home-grown surgeons, during a special feast ceremony, in the presence of many invited guests, would cut off the foreskin of the boyfs penis.  The ritual was faithfully followed under a supervision of a doctor, who did not have enough courage or bravery to refuse participating in this barbarian ritual.  Fanaticism, no ability to think straight, obscurantism, barbarism, and ignorance put the deep roots into Jewish masses.  The Jewish boys and girls did not have any social contacts with goys-Christians. They were strictly isolated from these contacts to avoid a harmful influence from outside - so called bad examples.  The social existence, traditions, way of living, and the reality of everyday life of Christians, like city merchants, a predominant majority of different handymen, contractors, black job workers, laundry washers were almost the same as Jews, but they had more freedom, at least from my own point of view, from religion, and strict demands to follow different religious rituals and religious commandments.  He ( Christian) would get up in the morning, cross himself in front of a saint image on his wall ( Jews did not have any images of saints), and go to work; and his kids would run around in total freedom outside in the fresh air, without knowing any God damned kheders. The most prominent difference was that Christians often times (and especially on weekends), would drink, get involved in hooligan fights, and other unrighteous acts. That was not the case in the Jewish community. But this so called praised soberness did not let itself show in any healthy form.  I must add that the girls were not taught grammar but only prayers too, and women in general were simply treated as outcasts.  They were allowed to take care of their homes only, and were bound to their houses where they lived the life of a full dependence on a will of their fathers, husbands, and a strict control of their families.  If there was some importance about the religion in every day life of a Jew then that was the holy Sabbath, the rest-day, which was given a special attention by the Jewish community.  My deceased parent, after a hard work week, would finish his work on the Friday afternoons and go to a public sauna where for the price of 5 kopeyeks he would take a hot bath and a steam room; then he would come home and have a lot of tea with bites of sugar (solid pieces of sugar which price was 15 kop. per foont), put on his the only Sabbath wardrobe, which he had worn all his life since the day he got married, and set off for a nearest prayer place belonging to a big synagogue, brightly lit with candles and decorated for the holy day.  After a brief prayer, the candles and lamps, except those burning day and night during memorial-days period, were put off by a goy (a person of a non-Jewish religion) who was specifically invited for this duty.  The memorial candles and lamps were lit by a request of the deceasedfs sons who loudly cited during the morning and evening services special prayers (kadish) dedicated to a peaceful rest of their parents for a period of eleven months. Talking about saunas, I completely neglected to note that the saunas were used not so much for hygiene purposes but as for religious ones.  Saunas contained pools of hot water, where  on Saturdays, when saunas where not heated , the orthodox Jews, just before their prayer, would take coupells, and women had to wash themselves after their monthly periods; without this, they could not have any sexual intercourse with their husbands.

From the synagogue my farther invited homeless guest, vagabonds, who would find a shelter there, those who were not of a criminal nature. Our dwelling consisted of one small room and a kitchen. The dirt floor in the house was covered with yellow clay and sand over which canvas rags were placed. The room is brightly lighted with candles over which every woman cites grace prayers, and by a kerosene lamp with a brown fitil, with barely glaring fire. Freshly baked and nicely smelling baguettes (nicely baked bread made of wheat flour) are on the table, fish, ukha (fish soup), noodles, meat soup, in short testy courses of meal, artfully cooked by my mother. Saturdays were celebrated even by the poorest; there were special foundations to help them. The farther and a guest cited grace prayers over their glasses of wine and began their supper, in between singing prayers. Quite, peaceful, cozy -- and all of this refresh you, gives you a fresh start for an upcoming work week. During a work week, in our family, as well as in any other working family, food was not cooked, with an exception of something fast. The mother would buy for 2 kop. an half a funt of cottage cheese, put in it some water, spread this over pieces of bread, and we would eat it with the raven appetite, with a such one that those city ladies who take some medicine to acquire some would be jealous about. But in the evening, an extensive supper from buck wheat, beans, and several grams of veal per soul. During Saturdays any kind of work even home shores were forbidden and nobody would make fire on these days. All cooked food was prepared on Fridays and stored inside a well heated kitchen stove. A visiting Russian woman would take candle sticks off the table and make fire in the stove. On Saturdays in synagogues and prayer houses, in a celebration atmosphere, a reading of a chapter from the Bible took place, there were a total of 52 such chapters according to the number of weeks in a year that is torah readings, pergament scroll, written by a hand of a saint muzha by a duck feather. The reading was performed with a special intonation and motive by a qualified reader in antract of prayers on a specifically allotted elevated place, or stage in the presence of invited in turn senior visitors. During the days of the New year, and there were somehow two of those days, Judgment days, as well as other religious holydays, the right to be present during the torah reading was sold through the public action and the price for this right would reach a considerable amount of money. On the days of a holly day Goshana -- a slave, after a celebration, Kushi, when for the eight days the food was taken in speedy constructed Tents (sikos) Contor, escorted by the senior visitors, walked amvon, where every participant carried in their hands so called a heavenly apple(Yasroye) - fruit growing in Palestine, Greece, and a palm branch (Lilov). It walked with ceremonial march around several times, singing specific prayers. These heavenly apple and palm branch, sluzhka (a person who participated in this service, a servant) took to citizens houses so that a whole household could perform on them a grace ritual. By the way, every Saturday in all prayer houses, the prayers for a well being of the ksar and his family were said. The prayer houses(synagogue) belonged to different manufacturing quoters(Segments): shoe-makers, tailors, carpenters, painters, barrel-makers, water delivers, chimney cleaners etc. Some of them were private closely resembling the house churches which belonged to well-off Christians. A house owner in his golden years of his life to prolong the life and save his soul, would give part of his house a prayer place, give it its own name, with permission and sanction of authority of course, and autocratno rules in it, putting all income, the visitors donations, in his own pocket, killing, this way, in one shot two rabbits. A synagogue, by the way, served as a meeting place for the discussions of public affairs: there information about orders, regulations of appropriate authorities, and about decisions of the Jewish community concerning one or the other question were announced. A synagogue as such was an extension of a kheder and as the latter was the same breeding place for darkness, ignorance, all sorts of prejudices, savagery, in short was the same a psychedelic drug. Jewish kids alienated from any kind of games, entertaining, enjoyment, outdoors activities, locked in inadequately small, stuffy, stenchy kheders, lacked a good nutrition diet, grew up weak, feeble, frail, weak, lifeless, and cowed. The czars government cared less about the general masses and especially about people of another religion. The Jewish intelligencia, who provided an European education for their children allowing them to achieve their goals by all means, widely utilizing their privileged status and connections, was completely indifferent to the masses. By receiving a diploma with a license of doctor, physician, pharmacist, provisor, lawyer, engineer, a Jew would exclude himself from a status of dependency on the merchant class and would abandon his relation to kagal, that is a Jewish community. And the Jewish kagal, about which all eudophobs and all anti-Semite press loudly cried on all the crossroads, was its own country within the country. The community was electing a so called a merchant elder. It had its own meeting place (house) which had a big council office, respectable place, where records in revizskikh skazkakh, books for the records of the Jewish population census, registration and composition of the family lists for benefits in connection with the military obligations were made. In the past, during the reign of the previous czar, the main function of the community included a fulfillment a known yearly quote for recruits into the military service. These quotes were filled with recruits consisting from vagabonds, prestupniks(criminals), dregs of society, from the poorest classes of the population; who could not pay off to avoid the recruitment. To avoid the recruitment all kinds of tricks were used: substitutions were being made, the passports on dead souls were issued etc. For the purpose of the service avoidance, body parts mutelisation was common: chopping of puling off a thumb on the right hand, growing of two middle fingers to the palm of a hand, making hernia, artificial parshes on heads were made, piercing ear-drums, pulling out teeth. In short, many disabled themselves for the rest of their lives, and some would prematurely perish. There were many home-grown specialists operators in this field. The practices of a systematic exhaustion of a body was common such as food depravation, awakening, that is sleep deprivation for a period of two-three month before a recruitment day, and in addition to all of this, bribes to physicians and other members of military commissions were given. Different foreign passport were bought: Turkish, Romanian, Austrian, Valakhsky, etc. These fake foreigners who were born on the banks of Gnilopyat River (river in Berdichev, flowing into Teterev), paid a monthly endowment to the local police. A shortage of recruits growing from year to year brought some severe measures during the rein of Nicolas II. A law was passed according to which any person without rights that is a Jew without a passport, regardless his age, health condition, marital status, was send to be soldier into the penal unit. As a result of this law many outrageous abuses took place: there were some scum of the earth, scoundrels who would steal, swindle, extort passports and give away their prays for a good reword. Very often a family man, a father of adult children, and grandfather would go to the army and would never come back. Later on a more inhumane law followed. According to this law children of Jews were taking to the army: they were taken by force from the holds of their mothers, lured out of schools, apartments, houses, and given to the recruitment centers. From there they were sent to different villages, gumlets(Hamlets), given to peasants to help them in all sorts of farm, house, real-estate work. Many of these children could not survive a hardship of this slavery and perished, but those who would survive were sent to the, so called, kantonistskies schools upon reaching their teenage years. There they were baptized and forced to accept Orthodox Christianity. Immediately after the graduation they were taking to the military service. Many talented people and well known marshals came from these children whom, however, fanatics parents and all relatives refused to recognize and considered them outcasts of the religious Jewish community. A more detail description of this a reader will find in a writing of Rabinovicz Shtrafnoy (Penal), in a story Poymanik by Bogrov, grandfarther of a man who killed Stolipin, the Minister of Foreign Affairs during the time Nicolas II. These true stories are fragments of real life episodes. Special taxes were imposed on Jews: boxing tax was for the right to slaughter cattle or poultry according to Jewish ritual, on kosher meat. This right was sold (landed) on the public auctions for quite a big amount of money. The lender (the person who would buy this right for a period of time) employed many people: in his possession were cattle and poultry slaughter houses, in cities as well as in peripheral areas (rural), surrounding areas. A small amount in a tax form, the lender had to give as support of the Jewish religious congregation. A candle tax was directed on the support of the Jewish schools <<Talmud Tora>>, Jewish children studied not only Gods Law, but the Russian language grammar also. And, finally, there was a community tax as support of different community needs. In relation to the public life the fairness demands to say that orthodox part of the Jewish community, but not by any means, the praised intelligencia, somewhat cared about the ill-provided brothers. There were centers, foundations, of care for the poor who were provided with wheat, fuel, opresnokami on Pesakh, for pregnant women, foster kids, homeless and poor teenage girls brides, who were getting married, were provided with some garment on the first time, for the prisoners who were jailed for all sorts of economic crimes, and help was given to communicate with the superior authority, not easily reachable for everyday people etc. In short the care was provided in one or the other form, sometimes even in an ugly one. Small loan banks were in prayer houses , and , funny to say, unions, once again of the religious unity, something like an organization of psalm readers on Saturdays, reading of short excerpts from Talmud at the bodies of the deceased etc. Such unions, organizations were not anywhere found in the Christian community; only latter on, shelters, bogodelnyas, the khorugvenostsev organization etc. started to appear.

This gave a reason to the yudophobic fellows to talk about a great Jewish unity around their kagal, they did not notice or did not wish to see that a rich Jew, capitalist, plant or factory owner, was the same exploiter, vampire, as all capitalists, towards either Jews or others. Occupations and trades will be discussed below. My father stood out in his work environment because of his education, his knowledge of the Bible and prayers, and his secret dream, like many others, was to raise me a scientist, rabbi, for which I, according to the rebe words, had a great talent. I faintly remember that on my 11-12th year of my life, I studied the divorce law according to Talmud - that one can take a wife, make her stay with him, in three ways: by a written agreement; money, i.e. by a silver coin, handed to a virgin or a divorced woman in the presence of two witnesses while citing some particular words; and sexual intercourse. Upon my demand, of a curious boy, to explain the exact meaning of the latter condition, I received from the rebe a strong smack to my face, one such that the darkness clouded my vision. Kheder, rebe, and all this stomach sickening surrounding, the whole presentless figure of the despotic teacher, who had over us, his powerless servants, an unlimited power; all this Talmud's fancied twisted truth, like a tale about an egg brought by a chicken on a holiday, about sexual intercourse, about women's periods etc., made me sick and were grossly repulsive to me. I remember a strong hatred took over me towards one of my teachers, who beat us without any mercy and without any reason, for nothing, letting all his hate, accumulated from a hardship of everyday life, directed on us, his defenseless slaves. There is a need to note, that, besides his teaching as a profession, he had some other occupations: he was cantor of a small prayer house, was a shadkhenom, that was a factor specializing in marriages, something similar to a respectful match-maker; was a collector, a seller of a foreign, secret, tickets of a law value, had some realestate property in hamlet Romanovka, in 2-3 virst from Berdichev. About this Romanovka, I must say some words. During a rein of Nicolas I, the government passed a project which was supposed to bind Jews to land: in the form of an experiment, Jews were given a small piece of land in the area near Berdichev, supplied with agricultural tools, some little stock of other things, liberated from all kinds of monetary payments, all types of taxes, tolls and duties, and the most important from military obligations - from recruitment which was a scarecrow, monster, punishment. First the Jews snatched this opportunity, grabbed it as the safe anchor, but, were not accustomed to this hard physical labor, especially with the primitive method of a land cultivation of that time, accustomed, so to say, to easy bread, to the humiliating occupations like servitude, factorness, servitude to a master, a reach landowner, to a member of the religious congregation, and in the cities - office workers. Accustomed to kustarnichestvu, an easy home trade where they could freely exploit somebody else's labor, mostly teenagers, they soon cooled down, got disappointed, lost any interest to this hard but noble, honest, and clean work. The youth ran away in all directions, those who were left, more sober minded, could do nothing by themselves and as a consequence a good many collapsed in its very root, once more fuelling with hate against themselves and against all Jews the ruling circus (authorities) with anti-Semitism, the compulsive reactionary-podpevatelyami. And the problem was that all these newly born colonists did not have any unity, authority to organize them, and moral support from the side of well-offs, rich, the well established classes of the Jewish community, extensive class of Jewish intellectuals, who, I repeat, devoted their lives only to personal pleasure, widely using all kinds of available rights, power, and privileges, using all kind of means to ignore their poorer brothers.

In the hamlet of Romanovka, the rabbi had a piece of land, his wife owned a small (labaznuyu lavku) grocery store (pawn shop), and he was proletarian (in short he was well-off).  By the way, soon I escaped from him, categorically refused to see him, and, instead, found a peaceful and quiet old man.  My eldest brother did not have any scholarly inclinations and therefore was sent to learn a salesf trade in a retail store. But in order to become a good salesman and/or a clerk, one had to go through a stern and demanding school to learn the trade.  The first two years, my brother was a call boy having to do the most difficult jobs; he was, mainly at the disposal of the merchantfs wife, doing all kinds of home and estate work.  His poor farther, however, had to supply him with food, shoes, and clothing for the three years of his service, until his mother, with relentless pleading and begging,  finally persuaded  the owner of the house to give him a 50 ruble a year salary.


And thus, he was growing steadily, according to his maturity in the service hierarchy, and received, like others, his salary according to his personal abilities to trick and cheat the local salesmen, who, in their turn, cheated their small in number customers. 

We lived on the outskirts of the city in our privately owned small house.  I remember my brother, who used to return home from the store at 1-2 hours pass midnight, often would come home terrified by his night encounters with criminals and/or other nightly adventures like running into a black dog, a sign of the dark power, which would following him closely all the way home. My younger sister passed the same stern school of apprenticeship; she trained under a local tailor for dressmaking, with the only difference that coming home at 1-2 ofclock after midnight she was risking not only as a woman, her womanfs honor, but even her life.  We lived through a lot of alarming episodes, having to wake up in the middle of the night, after a day of the hard labor, in order to meet her.  I bring up these examples to give a clear picture of the cruel and shameless exploitation, derision on the personality of a poor and defenseless worker.  I, back then a young and naïve man, was the most outraged by the fact that the whole surrounding society, the content intelligentsia, power holders, looked at all this as a normal way of life and none of them ever tried to raise their voices against this cruel reality.    


Time was passing, I was growing.  It happened one day that some of my friends somewhere found a Russian language introductory book – called gBookvarh, from which they taught themselves how to read in Russian; and definitions of Russian words, they meticulously searched in the lingo-Jewish dictionary, Lifshitsa, working quite hard.  In this workshop of self educators, I found myself with a distinct, raging desire and diligence, I plunged into study of the Russian language, patiently spending whole nights with the book.  And a simple calculating story/tale would tell much more to my childfs heart than kazuistika of the Eastern fanatics.  My mother was very happy about that, but the farther did not share my motherfs feelings. He had reasonable concerns that my reading of Russian books would undermine in me the foundations of the Jewish religion. That is exactly what happened. 


In that time, one private teacher, Livonian, giving his private lessons at home, a man of older years, without family or family roots, and whose appearance was not trustworthy, displaying occasionally a strange behavior, hiding his nationality and family roots, some Likhtenshtein, rented a flat in our house.  My mother bragged to him about her son who could already read and speak Russian quite well.  He gave her advice to put me in a city college, promising to my mother, who was doing him some favors, to do everything in his power to help.  He was in a very good relation with a Russian language instructor there, Pesyatskim, with whom he was doing some shady business in area of bribes as an administrator to the city college, the only source of education in the big city with a population of one hundred thousand, was very difficult.

After several months of serious training, I passed an admission exam with an excellent score and was accepted my first year to the school, bypassing the three-year preparation courses, making my mother indescribably happy, but causing deep sorrow for my religious farther, who pointed out the fact that in the schools the pupils sit without hats and write on Saturdays (the reach religious Jews, with the permission of the school authority, did not send their children on Saturdays), and pointed out the fact that my interaction with goes, the children of non-Jewish religion, could have a negative influence on me.  After the repulsive kheder with its boorish teacher, in a small hut with a dirt floor, a sole window of which faced a dead end street, as if on purpose not to distract the children by the outside view; the new school filled with light, clean, roomy classes with high and big windows, facing a main street, with teachers dressed in suits (tailcoats) and a vitsuniform (kind of an uniform) with two-headed eagles on the shiny metal buttons, clean and nicely dressed male and elegantly dressed female students, with children playing outside in a very big school yard, with the gymnastic exercises on trapetsiakh and on a suspended from a high ceiling ladder, rooms with geographical maps, hanging from the walls, huge globes with a compasses, huge auditoriums of the pedagogical staff, where many books bonded in the most expensive golden covers sitting on the shelves of different pieces of ornamentally curved furniture, fundamental and students libraries, big portraits of the Russian czars, marble busts of poets, and writers, all put me in a state of awe, as well as triggered in me my curiosity.

During that time of kheder, I understood in what darkness I had been living, though later, during my mental development and observations, I gradually got convinced that all these teachers were instructors of a quite low qualifications, narrow-minded, uncivilized, poorly educated people, ferlyanuri of scholarly affairs, masters of low achievement, colorless filisteri, Gorkyfs merchants. 

With gratitude I recall the brightest years of my education in that college, which gave me the first rays of knowledge.  I was one of the best students and had a good reputation among the instructors in addition to love and respect from my fellow students. Among the children of the reach classes of the population, who sent their children to this college, I was considered one of the poorest, and the instructors came to recommend me to tutor those who fell behind in their study; spoiled motherfs boys. Thus, after the classes, I started giving my lessons, earned money, got a sense of independence, supported myself, and finished school with excellence.  After graduation, I became a local teacher, running classes from morning until late at night.  

Despite my busy schedule, I managed to find time for my personal development. I was reading classics, magazines, and newspapers.  A big influence on my mental development was an organized literature workshop at our place. An organization that expanded education among Jews of Russia made up of students from the University of St. Petersburg, those from the city of Berdichev Pesis, Fradis and others, had been sending us books and magazines.  We had in our possession the Pisarevfs fictions, which I especially liked, loosing any concept of time while reading them, the fiction works of Belinsky, Mikhailovskogo, Dobrolyubov, and even the famous roman of Chernishevskogo gWhat to doh. Back then there was a very reach Russian – Jewish literature – the magazine gThe Jewish Libraryh, published periodically and which became gVoskhodh(SunRize) with the weekly chronic, magazines: gRussian Jewh, gDownh, the fictions of Bogrov gNotes of a Jewh, Levanda, Frantsiska Orshanskogo, Rabinivitcha, and others, which are very rare books nowadays.  Those who are interested in the history of everyday life of Jews of that time can find them in the Leningrad Public library as well as in other central book archives.  These talents were marked by Russian literature and critics during their times.  The government authority had doubts in the political welfare of the state, conducted a thorough search of our workshop place, apprehended the owner of the flat where we had our bibliotheca, which was the place of our gatherings, and so the workshop ceased to exist.

Having a strong desire to continue my education, I, with the advice from a watchkeeper of the city college, Filip Andreevitch Gaesovskogo, whose son I was teaching, set off with a petty amount of money in my pocket to the city Romni, Poltavsky region, where a good college recently opened, but I was not accepted because of my older age. I should have knocked at some doors of the regional authority there as some others had done successfully, but I, an inexperienced young man, without any support in an unfamiliar city, seeing that my last sum of money was almost spent, turned around and set off back to were I came from, to the city of Berdichev were I continued to teach, supporting my poor parents, being their only sole strong support.  Later I tried once again to get into a higher society and left for Warsaw, where my elder brother served as a clerk (prikazchic) in a retail shop, but due to his unstable status (he was a deserted soldier and living with a foreign passport), could not settle and returned back to Berdichev.  At that time, I had to go to the czarfs army, but to serve to the czar and to the farther land, I did not have any desires to cripple myself, and therefore I gave a bribe of about several hundred rubles to a doctor in the military commission, to faltsevich, who visited me at home in order to support my claim about my illness, of course, accompanied by a factor (agent), and thus I was discharged from military service, and was put in ratniki of the opolachenia.


     The light and heavy industries just started to develop, were just born: in the city there were a few factories, mainly tanneries.  The workers of this category were just a few and the main work in the town, the business of most of the townfs population and adjacent to it areas, were different occupations like handicraft, money-lending, factorstvo and, mainly commerce; there were enough thieves, who fancied other peoplefs property too.  I want to repeat, for a deprived of civil rights Jew all roads were closed:  a Jew could not even be a cityfs security guard (gorodovoy), or a clerk in some government institution, only really, handyman, artisan, merchant, salesman, underground lawyer, melamed, private tutor, kabatchik, holding a license with the name of a Russian merchant, landlord of the house of ill repute, agent, procurer specializing in recruitment of the public temper victims, huntsman for people, informer, and in the later years, at the end of a rein of the Nicolas II – instigator, manifesting remarkable talents à la Azef, to which any provincial governor would be envious of, or even restricted by minister[?].  Well, let the reader forgive me for my short detour but I must say a few words about governors, what I read in gIstorichestkiy Vestnikh(gHistorical Informerh).  There lived once some governor, blockhead, idiot, perfect fool, but he had a quite intelligent wife.  Visits him once, for example, an acrobat to get a permission to open a circus, the governor makes him sit near him on the couch, gives him a cigarette and has a friendly conversation with him, and at the end signs the permissionc  His wife advances a remark to him, that he demeans himself by treating some clown as his best friend.  The governor promises his wife next time to improve himself.  Next time, a diplomat of a foreign country visits him.  He measures him with a cold eye, arrogantly talks to him; the diplomat confused, informs his authority and all unpleasant for the governor consequences are followed.  Or visits him, a city Mayor and he receives him on his feet.  His wife comes in and tells him in his ear:  sit him.  The governor, without thinking too long, presses the button, calls orderly with the order to escort the Mayor to the guardhouse, and tells the wife that he executed her will: she falls into a panic: the Mayer was immediately, it is clear, released, the apologies was issued to him, everything is blamed on orderly, and  all is  hushed up. 

     The factors also were divided into specializations.  There were factors for buying and selling property, land, peoplefs personal possessions, leases – that were of the highest rank, those who leased apartments, servants, nuns for childcare, matchmaking, the ones who delivered life property to the houses of ill repute, and those who trafficked such across the boarder to the Middle Eastern harems of Turkish pashas, who priced very high the white slaves; adroit, well paid agents, went back and forth everywhere in a search for their international victims, matrimonial who were matching wedding couples, the uniters of harts and souls, those who would find and choose the right patents, merchant certificates, politsais who had an access to the strict authority and    all sorts of dark business, for landing money from merchants, lordly, serving to local lords, landowners, religious fathers serving to the local and district priesthood, quite a few, clerks and even thieves, so called profits, through whom the stolen property, for a reasonable reward,  was returned undamaged, and victims in most cases preferred to turn in to such profits rather than to the authorities.  Outside the boarders of Jewish habitant, the rights to live had only negotsianti, the merchant of the first guild, those who had a University degree, artisans, retired lowest ranks servants of the time Nicolas II, and prostitutes, the holders of the yellow tickets. 


As a result of such life without rights, a typical accident has occurred.  A Jewish girl, who has passed all her entrance exams for the next level classes in the Petersburg Womanfs gymnasium with excellence, was not accepted because she did not have a right to reside in the capital city.  She registered as a prostitute, and presented her yellow registration card as an official document.  The liberal press raised a lot of noise.  An innocence of the self ashamed girl was found and, with a permission of the highest administration, she was allowed to stay in the gymnasium.

Speaking about factors, I missed one point. One voluptuous pan, riding in his luxurious carriage in the town, noticed a sitting near the gates of one house a beautiful woman.  He took a note of the house number in his note book.  On the following day, when his court factor arrived, he offered him to gather all possible information about this woman and asked him to try to bring her over.  The factor has found that she is married, has five children, and her husband is a well off excise official, an owner of a big house, thus, implication has followed that there could not  be any conversation about  meeting her.  The Frenzied pan drove away his factor.  One week, then the second one has passed, but the pan would not allow the factor to come on the premises of his house, the Jew is in despair.  He came up with one cleaver idea: has bought different pieces of expensive silk and wool fabrics, haberdashery, he found and invited over one lively and shrewd woman and told her to visit the wife of the official and to offer her all these goods for a half price, in credit.  The woman started visitting the officialfs wife and selling her all these goods for pennies, offering her a high credit.  When the amount of the debt accumulated, the factor was growing impatient; the wife of the official was told to pay off accumulated amount of debt at once.  The woman lost her head since she did not have the amount needed to pay, but to tell her husband about her purchases she did not have courage.   As a way out, she was offered to visit the owner of the store to ask to postpone the payment.  The woman was brought to the pan, everything worked out and the factor was reinstated to his job. 

For Jews there was only one way –commerce and, despite the difficulties of rightless status, they, in this field of endeavor, showed their great abilities, knack, and have achieved a great success.  All commerce, at least in Berdichev and adjacent towns, was concentrated in their hands.  The great urge to the quick-money, to the wealth – was a common occurrence in this horde.  A salesman-merchant, had taken a lot of goods in credit, on a quite large amount of money and then declared bankruptcy; later, he has found some way to get away from his creditors, the reach Moscow, Lodzinsky, Warshaw, Belarussian fabricants, by paying them 20-30 kopeeks on each rubble owned; restored his credit, and declared bankruptcy again until he had enough capital on hands to make a good profit.  Poor handyman borrowed 25-30 rubbles with 25-30% annual interest, used to pay off the borrowed amount in weekly payments, and in a case of a missing payment or inability to pay, on all his petty goods and chattels, on the tools of production, was ordered seizure and all his movable belongings would be sold on an auction.  

   The reach American company of sawing machines gZingerh had their offices all over Russia.  Its quick agents received commissions from each machine sold and in addition to that some percents from the payments of those who made their purchases in credit. Darting about among the needy, the agents were persuading the needy, offered them some great deals, and conditions on purchases.  A machine buyer needed to sign a printed so called blank-agreement the content of which, because of outright illiteracy and ignorance, he did not understand.  When an unfortunate event would strike, the poor got sick for example and could not pay anymore, the machine would be taken away without any court hearings, in administrative procedure, and all paid, socked in sweat rubbles, would be left to the company.  A heart breaking scenes would take place during these expropriations which, as expected, led to nowhere.  A declared bankruptcy on ten thousand rubbles merchant was guaranteed not to loose his personal property, his own home possessions, which had much grater value than the amount of his debt.  Poor peasant woman for stilling ccc..   or   moujik, who tried to still a cow would be sentenced to two years, if convicted, to round-house companies, invocation of all rights and would be tormented for months before his court hearing day.  A shrewd merchant, on the contrary, the evil bankrupt, was walking free and enjoyed in his environment exceptional attention, where he was praised and respected. 

The doctors and feldshers enjoyed their lives with the only difference between them, that the former used to buy big houses – chertogs – and lent money for interest, and the feldshers, because of their modesty, restricted themselves to one store houses, or country homes, and held in their possessions one-horse carriages.  To this gwarm-heartedh pleyad of healers, I need to add Wisperers-Tatars.  A boy, girl or even an adult person, bitten, scarred by a dog or by some scary night sights, invites a Tatar, who negotiates to cure a schizophrenic patients all at once and day after day during two-three week period, he drives away spells, exorcises a malice, evil eye etc.  On such ignorance of the masses, tsadiki-chudodeis (chudodey - miracle performer) with their multiple swarms of parasites subsided, who, like Mongols often raided an ill-fated precinct of the Jewish settlement, and very often outside that area too, and gathered an extensive harvest.  They also used to give medical and, equally, any other advices and supplied the population with medicine, and talismans.  Tsadic the miracle performers had their own residences where dedicated pilgrims, carrying with them their contributions, gifts, used to go worshiping and receiving their blessings.  The merchant class materially supported and protected them from the government prosecution. 

By the way, I have to tell you about the way they used to treat mental illnesses.  Masses have no clue about the existence of nervous illnesses, and abnormal behavior of a mentally sick person, they used to aspire to the dark power inside the personfs body invisible to a simple sinful eye of an everyday man and which was presented in an image of the Devil with horns, Satan, etc.  And to liberate a possessed person from this force was only possible using the help of saint muzhes.  The Christians would bring such patients to monasteries and Jews appealed for help to all mighty ravines.  The later used to send their agents, cunning and experienced foxes, to secretly watch one or another mentally ill man or woman.  And when a moment of relieve, after a period of their violent impulses, would arrive to such person, the patientfs vision clears and he or she would get in touch with their senses, a ravine-tsadik opens an inauguration, calls on gathering and, referring to the patient, suggestively speaks with a reference to Satan, that in the name of saint Almighty Iyogov he orders it to free his victim at once. And imagine yourself, a miracle from all miracles takes place:  Satan himself, with horns, jumps out of a small finger of the patientfs arm, living on it a trace of blood from a tricky cut, like it were from a burst of a skin tissue, and disappears.  Fame about the tsadik the miracle performer spreads around the local area and a crowd of mentally ill people head towards his residence.  A writer Bogrov wrote a story in which a rich Jew, a tavern owner, living in his tavern in a field, and who has already lost several of his children, asked a righteous man the miracle performer on a road to bless his new born son.  The tsadik with a swarm of his service men visited him, but the greedy tavern holder with his reward did not appropriately satisfy the appetite of the higher guest, and they decided to give him a lesson.  In the moment of their departure, one of the venerable tsadikfs cunning agents runs into the childfs room and puts inside the pennies of the peacefully slipping child, an oat grain.  The child wakes up and raises unbelievable cry.  His poor mother makes her husband to run after the hastily left tsadik. The latter returns, cures the child on the fly, once again receives a good reward, and the fame about him spreads all over the place. 

About wild fanaticism of Jews, I will tell you in the next story.  A poor, slim body pale complexion Jew, with a hat and ermolka on his head, dressed in a long old style velveteen house-coat, with long paces, walks along a country road to the closest estate with a knapsack on his shoulders filled with different kinds of goods, to earn some money for the upcoming holidays of Pesakh.   To his misfortune, a landowner with a pack of his dogs goes hunting.  Having noticed the poor Jew, he for the sake of his personal amusement, sets his dogs on him.  The dogs pushed the Jew around a great deal, bit him all over, and tore up his entire clothes.  The poor Jew is lying on the ground with all his goods scattered about and weeping with tears.  Has amused himself completely, the land-owner promises to reward the Jew for his loses upon his return from hunting and orders him to go to his estate, castle to wait for him there.  The hunting was successful.  Many guest gathered.  They ate, drank, and had plenty of fun:  had a lavish and a boisterous feast.  A lackey reports to his highness Pan that a barely surviving Jew has been waiting in the kitchen since this morning.  The Jew is led into the manor-mansion and offered to try wine and all kinds of exotic food.  But he categorically refuses the offer, stating that his religion strictly prohibits for a Jew to eat and drink in a house of a goy.  Having seen that none of his admonitions is helping, the landowner gives him a handful of gold coins, silver and, in addition, a dozen or more geese, and orders to drive him home immediately, to avoid any bother and problems, in a case of the Jewfs death.  The poor Jew, after receiving such an amount of money, forgot about all his injuries and resentments, has recovered from all his wounds and became the richest man in the town.  A day of Pesakh celebration arrives.  The head of the family reads aloud in a sing-song voice the tale of the Jews repatriation from Egypt, from the pharaohfs slavery.  The family observed lent, and prepared for supper but there is a misfortune:  the wife cuts a stuffed poultry and, oh, what a terrible thing, she finds a grain of oat, but during this celebration, in all eight days, it is strictly forbidden to consume any grain product.  But, already, the slightly buzzed from wine Jew tells his wife, that God would forgive them, and the supper successfully continuous to the end.  On the next day his happy, shiny wife dressed in a festive attire, comes to the synagogue, and in an intermission during her conversation with the neighbors, she tells them about the accident with the oat grain.   The rumors, going from one neighbor to the next, got to ravinefs wife and the latter, without waiting too long, told the unheard-of story to her true-believer husband, called by God to protect his congregation from all sorts of sins.  An urgent summon is immediately called and indignant Jews, defending insulted, desecrated believes of their ancestors, beat the felon couple up nearly to death and sentence them to anafem (shinning) that is to cutting all kinds of relationships with the heretic family. 

      In no less ugly form, a religious fanaticism appears among Christians, and, especially, among their different sects:  during fires, women ran around raging flames with icons in their hands to pacify the raging blaze.  Illnesses were cured by Holy water, taken from a river during baptism; consecration by Holy water was done on the sixth of January.  From time to time, fanaticfs monsters of cruelty spread rumors about materialization of saint images in one or another places, about their sudden rejuvenation, about appearances of mother Maryfs face on a surface of water in the bottom of a well.  As a consequence of these rumors, the multiple pilgrimages would go to those locations, secret places.  The ignorant masses went in mobs, carrying with them extensive sacrifices to religious fathers and their henchmen.

@Here is, for you, one of many ways of protecting the dominant religion: an icon painter, living in a house of a Jewish woman, had been painting the angel Michael Archangel and, not having finished painting it, he moved to another apartment, leaving the boards with the face of the saint in a storage shed, and the poor Jewish woman, without really foreseeing the consequences, used these boards to repair the fence around her property. Passing by was a member of the Russianfs People Union who noticed the image, and as a result, the misdemeanor charges were filed and the woman was brought to justice.

@The Bar was divided into jurors, lawyers, their assistants, and people with university education, private lawyers, who had passed a special occupation-demanding test and received from the Congress of Judges of the Peace (J. P.) an annual license, the right to investigate criminal and civil cases, and hedge lawyers. And at the time, when the first, privileged in its predominant majority, lawyers sustained on St. Anthonyfs food and lived from hand to mouth, their private colleagues and their numerous undercover agents, who were not bound, in any way, by the cooperative ethics, enjoyed their lives, being able to take the bull by the horns, to adapt themselves to any situation, to contrive various tricks to evade the law and generally fished in troubled waters. I saw the following picture: several peasants come to a private lawyer, who happened to have an outstanding lack of any talent, to write an appeal for a decision made by the Congress of the Judges of the Peace. They arrive early in the morning when the messenger of Femidy (the goddess of judgment) is still being in the hugs of Morfious (the god of slip). A clock tolled nine, and a tall, lean figure comes out of the far ben of a lordly apartment, dressed in a colorful morning bath robe, with the fingers on its right arm filled with very expensive gold rings. The peasants dressed in their poor sermyags and zipuns, and baste shoes, bending low, appeared before his Highness. At the same time, the righteous spouse of the venerable advocate comes out of the bedchamber, whose waist size equals to a size of the baobab tree trunk, one of those women about whom L. H. Tolstoy used to say that every time when you see such a woman, you have a strong urge to call gorodovoy: oh, God, keep me away from temptations. And peasants by looking at the luxurious apartment, at the impressive figure of the advocate and on the heavy weight of his wife conclude that they deal with a real prominent and influential lawyer. The advocate asks them for a hundred and fifty rubles for writing the appeal. The peasants, bowing low, ask his Highnessf mercy, the former descending to their difficult situation, agrees on one hundred and twenty rubles. Untying their pouches with their hard work money, the peasants bring forth the amount. The paper is written with the help of a called in penman who receives his honestly earned one or two rubles. About tricks, shady businesses of different self proclaimed hedge jurists, I could speak a lot, but would it really worth it?

@Giving false evidence was a common occurrence: those who profited from this business were always welcomed in the offices of the Judges of the Peace: for a half or a ruble, they could testify to anything. A poor, ignorant, illiterate Jewish woman, making her living by making peasant pants for retail stores, cloth sellers, receiving 71/2 kopeeks for a pair, dried up as a Egyptian mummy, is trying to receive a privilege from military liability for her only son, and the police chiefs, middle men solicitors and all other small, bureaucratic scam backs suck out of the poor woman her last money. Any kind of paper coming out of the government chancellery has to be paid for. As taxes were direct and indirect, then, and bribes were of different kinds and forms. The police department, for example, celebrated their birthdays several times a year, and all real estate owners and merchants, with their gifts, were invited. And of the New Year celebration greetings, there is not even point to talk about. As soon as a gorodovoy would show up on the stairs of a Jewish womanfs apartment, the latter is already giving him a silver coin which she saved to bye bread. All of these, the above mentioned the heroes of profit, acquisition, evildoing, meanness, nastiness, lowness, loathsomeness – all of them together created a hodge-podge which manifested itself by an unusual creativity, resourcefulness, smartness, behaving in a scoundrel way, lied, spread evil right before the everybodyfs eyes, and, if you want, was praised. The tsar government was more afraid revolutionaries than professional thieves, robbers, swindlers and cheaters of all breads. The latter public, at least, followed their personal goals, selfish interests and did not undermined the tsarfs throne (tsarfs prestol), as Pureshkevitch used to say.

@Somewhat developed, well-read, with a good aptitude, I talk here about sales, was not cut out to fit a role of a clerk, and stuck in a teacherfs position.  Tutoring, as an educational trade, presented itself in an ugly form as well.  It was a kind of a school on its feet, serving to the rest of the orthodox part of the Jewish community, which did not send their children to the public schools and wanted at the same time to teach their children to the Russian language, Russian speech out of purely commercial interests.  There was a brutal competition in this area of work.  Among private tutors, disseminators of knowledge, there were all kinds of vulgar people; impostors; informers; scoundrels; individuals absolutely without any mental, moral and educational qualifications; moneymakers and swindlers.  

Some semiliterate calligrapher, who had a very fine hand writing, simply second to none, some Josef Gorodinskiy, he is a counterfeiter, published, as if his own, a Jewish     pismovnik written by Goldshtain-Gershenovich who was a poor, private and deprived instructor, received by hook or by crook the title of Peoplefs Teacher, opens a private manfs college and, without restricting his recruitment to mass media, by the way, giving little results, goes around on Saturdays and different Holy Days, accompanied by his agent, from house to house to recruit new students, telling people that he took upon himself a secret mission to spread education among the poor Jewish population.    

Explains to ignorant parents all benefits of education for their children in his privileged educational institution, where languages and sciences will be taught for the most minimal fees according to the parentfs income, and the latter,  flattered by his attention, dumbfounded, intimidated by the impressive, kind pedagogue, eagerly, with gratitude agree.  A boy starts attending the college; in his hat a budge is put.  An invited farther sees a more or less decent room, which cannot be compared to kheder, with a big portrait of his Highness Imperator, with different maps hanging on the walls, and by an offer of the college director signs a form with a seal, received, as if, from Petersburg, from the Ministry of Education itself, without really reading and understanding the context of the paper, and the contract says, that the signed below person promises to send his son such and such to the college during a current semester (half a year) for a particular monthly payment.  First, then the second months pass, the director request the payment for education.  The parents begin asking their son about the classes, and, having found out, that the instructors are the same melameds and a private clerk, that the owner rarely appears in the college, busy with his own business, pay for the time of their sonfs attendance, do not take the payment receipt and live the boy at home.  The venerable pedagogue brings in court the signed promissory note (agreement, contract), eloquently explains to a judge the parentsf base ingratitude who were given so much favor, and the judge without any twinge of doubt about an integrity of the information provided, by/with the name of His Majesty imperator rules: to recover from such and such a such and such monetary amount for/to the benefit of the educator I.G., plus the court and the case service fees.   A poor Jew, busy with earning his daily bread, do not pay to it any attention, does not show up in court, and does not write any appeal; and after some period of time the decision of the judge of the Peace comes into lawful power.  The plaintiff receives a written execution act, the court clergy, accompanied by a police officer and a council, arrive in a cab, put a chain and distrain all unmovable property of the defended, all household belongings, everything including machine, the tool of production.  Such cases were not an exception, and the foolish simpletons were plenty too, enough for everybody.  For such deeds, achievements in the public education, his children were accepted into middle and high educational institutions out of turn.  At the end of a school year, there was a public ceremony which was attended by a government representativ, and near the entrance, for the greater effect, a gorodovoy stands (not in vain).

The students of his were accepted in the local educational institutions in the first turn.  It was not in vain that the Jews used to say, that he has a hand in governmentc  This is true; he once drank to delirium tremens a teacher from the city college.  One tutor used to make his leaving by having a student – an around the corner grocery store - during a long period of time, supplies from a big store or else some dribs and drabs.  Another man, with some education, attempted to rape his female student.  To him, a reach merchant gave a large sum of money, in order to avoid a big scandal, so that he would evaporate himself off the horizon; he successfully did, especially satisfiedc, left.  The student was wed in a hurry, but the evil tongs still talked about her for a long time.  Such shady characters, individuals, existed in the educational environment.  The reader can imagine himself, how one would feel in the surrounding of such colleagues.  I did some attempts to bring this to light in press, but did not encounter an appropriate support in the pathetic community/society.  One correspondence gIn Kievsky Commentsh survived though.   During that time, visiting a simple work family, I notice a simple, unsophisticated, humble, modest and pretty girl.  Gathering information about the family and getting them know about myself, I, without thinking too long, made a marriage proposal, contrarily to what was bask then common, I did not asked for any marriage portion, though her parents did not even have it, received agreement  and became a fiancé.  The parents of my fiancéé were very poor.  Their primarily occupation was workmanship of the velvet galloon hand-made goods, and this trade was giving them a quite little money so that they barely could sustain their leaving.  The family consisted of five people and they lived in the dump basement dwelling, making a very terrible impression on a visitor by its poverty-stricken setting.   The pride of this family was an eldest son, a man with middle education, local, who was a state ravine.  

 The duties of the state ravines included a registration of the newly born, deceased, weddings, divorces, assisting in pledge during court hearings in the District courts and the courts of the Judges of Peace, translation from Hebrew to Russian, documents authentication, issuing certificates to different institutions, representing delegations of the Jewish society before the governmentfs superior authority and even, in extraordinary cases, before monarchic congregation.  They did not receive any state income, but lived by taking from population and lived, in general, not bad at all.  There used to be, back then, in all cites and towns spiritual ravines, religious theologians, who specialized in helping the population with all kinds of existential questions, such as, what one have to do with meat soup when boiling milk from a pot standing next to the meat soup overruns under the pot of soup.  A spiritual ravine could invite, and strictly reprimand an obdurate wife who with some reason did not wanted to share her bed with her lawful husband for example, or other things of that sort.  During my stay in the Ostrog city, at the time of       overwhelming birth giving, a spiritual ravine invited two young women whose husbands were in America at that time, and whom some young people, according to the rumors, visited often, and who by their fallen behavior caused an outrageous public disaster.  They also served as arbitrators in the cases of disagreements between the parties in commerce transactions, fulfilled juristfs functions, and often dealt with Russians who were doing business with Jews.  Among them were cleaver, though, one-sidedly educated people, who according to their clerical rank were on the higher level than their other clerical brothers.  Anyhow, they were more honest than tsadics-charlatans.  The brother of my fiancé wanted to employ me as his assistant in one of the regional places of his extensive eparchy, but did not found in me a radical, freely thinking individual, foreign to narrow-minded nationalistic mentality, and as a result we parted.

During that time, my farther suddenly died on a street on sixty third year of his hard working life from apoplectic stroke.  With a pitching pain in my heart, I recall all hardships, misery, which he peacefully, patiently, without complains endured, never uttered, as a worker, a mean word: and in a hot, sultry, long summer day, in a sever cold winter, during a blizzard and snowstorm, in rainy fall mire/slash he drugged himself with big and heavy buckets through the muddy roads, along the streets and alleyways of the town.  To collect money, the salary, the mother went outside.  We are accustomed to look at death as a common occurrence in nature, but the life is higher than philosophy, and an appearance of a human beingfs breathless corpse, which just several minutes ago was alive, thought, spoke, imposes a hard and oppressive fillings.  After  spending some time with authorities, insisting on an autopsy of the corpse as what is commonly expected in such death cases and what considered by Jews as a shame for a deceased, and after bargained with a crew of undertakers, asking a high price, I buried him.  In some cases undertakers, acting like an independent autonomous Jewish institution, demanded from heirs of a deceased wealthy Jew a high amount of money for his burial, and there was nothing one could do about that: no other Jewish burial bureaus were found around, but the authorities did not interfered in such cases, from undertakersf profits they benefited themselves.  The mother became widow, with two adolescents, daughters, without any means to existence.  Womanfs labor was used a little and there were simply no place were one could use it in towns, rather maybe only as a maid, but for maids were accepted only single women.  In villages and hamlets, were demand on labor was high, the Jews could not go.  The heavy and light industries were not yet developed. Workshops and small trade shops could only accommodate a small number of people: the supply of labor excided its demand, no mentioning about little pay for labor, fifteen hours shifts and repulsive hygienic conditions of the work environment.  My help was needed but I was already a father in my family.  

The family was growing from one year to the next: the style of life back then was that we did not know about gein, zwei kinder systemh, like in capitalist countries and in the majority of families, including ours about abortion nobody even had a clue, and it was strictly prohibited by law.  Abortions were hold in a special secrecy: there were certified akusherkas, who received secretly birth-giving women in their own homes, of course, those from the well-off class of the population, who paid very well for the work and for the keeping the secret.  Many young, in their primes, women paid hefty price with their lives during premature birth giving, or self induced premature birth.  The criminal actions of akusherkas, during those rare occasions when surfaced, were subjects to loud public trials. 

By the way, in Berdichev, for a long period of time existed so called a factory of Angels, owned by some Mariya Skublinskiy.  She accepted unlawfully born infants for an adoption, to be precise, for their mortification, but as a truly Christian woman she did not killed them, God forbids, but simply did not give them any food:  they screamed for a short time but then, died with a natural death, from hunger.  And their tender hearted mothers, public criminals, were not concerned with their fate, with the life of an unlawful fruit of their love affairs and were glad that got rid of them, of their shame.  Constant beating of these children had reason of its own: a student and kursistka, young people in their flower years fell in love with each other with all passion of their young hearts, were declared as a groom and a bride.  According to the Christian religious rules, the declaration was announced in the local parishfs church, that such children of God are getting married.  When the day of their marriage arrived and the priest asked to present their birth certificates and certificates about their holly baptism, the proof of their acceptance to the bosom of Christ, turned out, that the bride was unlawfully born, the groom refused to marry her, and she ended her life by committing suicide.  In the Jewish community, the cases of unlawful birth were rare, and if that would take place then the newborns were quickly liquidated, unofficially, and well in advance.  Unlawfully borne children (mamzers) were put to death without any twinge of consciousness, by almost their own mothers.  The cook, housemaid, got pregnant from a landlordfs son or even from a landowner himself, (the intelligent mothers patronized the relationships of their beloved with servants in the interests of their darlings health).  After a pregnancy become noticeable, appeared in relieve, the victim resigned, was thrown on the streets without pity, but the world is not without kind people: factoress would give her shelter, the unfortunate wretch does not show her nose on the streets, but after giving birth she is sold as a single mother into a wealthy house.  Talking about adhering to public decency, I must mention so called Heaven Evenings, which were organized during winter times in Berdichev.  Several local intellectuals, who had some public status, organized a workshop, the members of which gathered on particular days and hours, and men, and women, dressed in the costumes of primordial Adam and Eve, completely naked, practice dances under music sounds in a hotly heated spacey auditorium and in interludes made big drinking bouts to Bakhus (God of Wine in ancient Greece).  The head of the workshop was a local notary Pogrebetskiy, a married man.  There were different leagues of Love, luxurious brothels, with separate cabins etc.  The liberate press, constrained by the strict censorship,  nevertheless reacted on one or the other negative way of life, had its own staff members in the province who used to bring to public attention outrageous cases of all kinds of disgraceful behaviors.  But a local correspondent, photographer and rhymer, restricted himself to only one chronic of events, fires, thefts, murders, suicides, about anything but not about common merchants tricks and machinations, coming from the point of view that silence is the gold.  And, really, a venerable correspondent would come into a store, takes the goods he needs in non-returnable credit, and hearty shakes a hand of a lovely, quick-witted store owner.  The writer of these lines tried to utter a word about his unseemly actions, but among editorial staff there were those who were on his side, and he himself was not an exception among the local venality.

In the chapter about factors, I completely neglected to mention educational factors, those who played a significant role in the middle and high educational institutions, as, for instance, in Novorosiysky University in the Odessa city, where once a great scandal broke out, involving many professors, the people of science, with big names.  The desire to get into classical gymnasiums, real and commercial colleges was not caused by the urge towards learning, enlightening oneself, but by the desire of a purely materialistic in nature: education gave well known rights, privileges and in someway gave means to onesf wellbeing.  To the parents of the Jewish children, accepted into educational institutions, this fact gave a right to live outside the boundaries of their settlement, from where they, indeed, tried to escape by all means.  Well-off Jews paid support for poor Christian children in gymnasiums, commercial colleges and of course, made single contributions of great amounts of money for opening vacancies for their children.  And since the doors of the grand Educational Temple were tightly shut for many simple mortals (The minister of public education, Delyanov, passed a regulatory process - do not accept into middle educational institutions the children of maids, thatfs, simple folks, admission exams, even preparation classes were competitive), some entrepreneurs,  shrewd wheeler-dealers, were opening some private, with rights for the students, middle-level educational institutions, which represented nothing else but a sort of speculative organizations where certificates, labels, patents, Papafs ( The head of the Roman church, given the supreme power) pardons from all sins were openly sold.  For the ruling class there were lyceums, page and cadet schools (military schools), institutes of the noble   damsels, theological seminaries, religious schools and other closed educational establishments in addition to the above mentioned public ones, and for the working people, churchial-parochial schools were opened, where faith, love and devotion to the throne were propagated, and where the children of Iudeys (Jews) and other nationalities were accepted.  And with what a pitiful intellectual and spiritual baggage of knowledge many students graduated from these shrines of science, and in the classics colleges and other real educational institutions, not a few students were thrown out, over board, without pity, for their low academic performances and, God knows, how many tragedies were there, suicides, the innocent victims of the grade system, where a grade mark was a crucial factor in decision making about a fate of a student.  Many suicides among students were if not on the grounds of academic achievements then based on hunger, privations and unbelievable deprivations, which, finally, shook public consciousness, and the whole press sounded tocsin, even though, of course, victims were from raznochinetzs (families without class).   Reach students, help organizations justified themselves, so that, as they did not know about such outright/crying needs and deprivations among student body.  I am inclined to think that any intelligent, responsive human being is capable of noticing one or other hard emotional experiences of near-by and closest to him people.  Unfortunately, in our society interests of an individual, as such, [were not taken into consideration]: we were too closed in ourselves, too self centered, sucked in by our personal problems, stuck in in the small things of our material interests and cheap well-being.  Finally, there is a need for a subtle, writerfs observance in order to be able to achieve knowledge about human soul with its complicated, and many sided presentments/appearances.  Thus, before our eyes, some poets left this world: Mayakovsky, Yesenin, in the prime years of their lives. 

During this time the first wave of Jewish pogroms went over, which began, as I remember, in Odessa engulfing whole Ukraine, Besarabia, and other places.  I wonft go over details of the wild outbursts of the drunk, savage, brainwashed mob of barbarians from the middle-ages, acting with a clear approval of the authorities.  In Kishinyov, the mob was cutting womenfs breasts, killing toddlers, squashing their sculls against walls, impaled one teacher, etc.  The pogroms are noted in the chronicle of the press and filmed already latter with a help of many witnesses of these nightmares.  After receiving a Jewish delegation by the tsar, the government organized a special commission about the Jewish Question and from all gubernators of the Jewish habitat the exact statistics and information about Jewish domination was requested, in which they had to express their own opinions and points of views about this query.  Following all that, count Ignatiev, the minister of inner affairs, promulgated temporarily laws diminishing their, already limited, rights. 

The second wave of the Jewish pogroms went after a short period of time, under Plyeve, the minister of inner affairs during Nicholas II.  Russian government seeded discord, animosity(hostility) and hate among the different nationalities populating Russia in well known forms, for the purpose of taking away the peoplefs attention from the beginning of workers movement manifesting itself in the succeed accidents of terrorist acts during one of which Plyeve himself was killed.  The extremely hard and hopeless situation of Jews in Russia, finally, attracted attention and response from the Jewish bankers of Europe and North America: brothers Rodshields, the world famous philanthropist Moisey Montefiore, baron Girsh and others.  The charitable organizations world wide were opened which paid for the repatriation of Jews to North America and Palestine.  The destitute Jewish masses jumped on immigration like on the safety anchor.  Movement of poor Jews has began from their populated by many years, centuries places to the distant land, behind the Atlantic Ocean, like their ancient ancestors from the Egypt slavery under a leadership of Moisey.  I, however, did not follow the example of my friends, though afterwards deeply regretted that.   My family grew, the children matured.  The hardship has been increasing.  I turned to the Kiev educational district with a request to appoint me to a position in a Jewish state college, to where previously only those who completed special institutes for teachers in Vilna and Zhitomir were accepted and which were closed to this time as well as the ravines colleges.   My first request did not bring any results, but after some time sending my letter again, in which in bright colors, I painted my disastrous situation, the authority heeded my request and with an aid of the inspector of public educational institutions of the Kiev city pedagogue Lyubets, in the month of August, year 1904, I was appointed as an instructorfs aid in the Jewish state college in Vinnitsa, where I moved to with all my big family.  

While I was still living in Berdichev, the revolutionary movement had grown significantly; underground party-work was boiling: proclamations, leaflets, appeals with an antigovernment context were published and spread along all narrow streets of the workers quarters and the city at nights, illegal literature was spread around in multiple numbers.  Small rallies with carrying of the red revolutionary flag started to take place in the first time which, though, were quickly dissipated by the arriving police force, but nevertheless had a strong magnetic influence on the working class, helping them to awake its consciousness.  People could not stop reading the proclamations and brochures written in the Russian and Hebrew languages, talked, gathered with caution, discussed, were interested, agitated.  The outright house-searches and arrests were taking place, but the working mass, as if awoke from a long liturgical sleep, did not calm and manifestations were growing.  The police and zhandarms raged, but were powerless in their struggle with broken loose the forces of nature.  

Party workshops have been founded: bundovets, poaleytsionists, social-democrats, social-revolutionaries, had their special places for their meetings.  The economics strikes in the fabrics and factories, in many groceries and other stores have begun, as Berdichev was a big commercial and industrial center in the whole region.   All demands of clerks, and office workers were satisfied speedily: a great fear took pasetion of the Jewish bourgeoisie.  It is cowardly effaced itself, revered before the almighty government and cautiously with fear kept itself in the background before aroused, beginning to speak proletariat.  With the utmost alive interest I watched, followed this uneven struggle.  A chain of assassination attempts on the Tsarfs life took place and finished with the death of AlexanderII on the 1st of march, 1881, in Petersburg who was killed by an explosion of a hand grenade thrown in his carriage.  A chain of other terrorist acts followed, chain of loud political processes, unsuccessful failed attempts of provocateurs etc.

In the same year in Berdichev a catastrophe took place, which is deeply imprinted on my memory.  In the New Year Eve, that is on 13th of January from a fallen down kerosene lamp, a circus filled with public caught fire: around thousand people died in this tragic accident, some choked with fumes, who was burned alive and in the morning the circus court was ridden with dead bodies, like on a battle field. 

And in my house was the headquarters of an active political circle consisting of local and coming from the center with particular directives political activists. During my illness, the wife rented one of the rooms to a visiting from another town shoemaker (cobbler), at whose place loud meetings started happen during the night time:  the exited youth, with a great enthusiasm, gave itself to the revolutionary work forgetting even about their personal safety.  As a proletarian, belonging to a poor exploited class, I, in the depth of my soul, could not be unsympathetic with the revolutionary work elevating intellectual level of the masses, but an active participation, I, burdened by material difficulties, the responsibility of feeding my family, could not accept.  My eldest son, still yet a boy, got deeply involved into the movement, with unquenchable thirst he plunged into reading the illegal literature.  I did not try to talk him out of this and did not stay in his way, but only asked him to be more cautious.  The Jewish youth, workers and intelligencia, were strongly involved into the movement, and took the most active participation in the revolutionary work.  We were living through the nerve racking moments, especially, that in this, very same apartment, I had a private school, with a big porter of the tsar on the wall, the educational inspection could show up at my door practically at any moment.  The headquarters were moved to another, more safe, location which, however, did not help us to avoid big problems later in the future, when the tenant was caught and locked up in the jail.  Our place was sorely searched, which did not bring any results.  gKreitserova Sonatah by Lev Nikolaevitch Tolstoy was expropriated as an illegal piece of writing, but we somehow escaped the consequences, partly because among my students was police staff. 

In the Vinnitsa College, my acceptance by the colleges there was far from friendly: I was the poorest man among the staff, who consisted of relatively wealthy people.  They had high incomes from other businesses on the side, outside their direct pedagogical duties in the college.  Thus the head of the college, Bibler, was an owner of a book store, artfully played in cards and would win every game he played.  He even played with his direct authority, the chief inspector of the public colleges, Favorov, to whom he, as one would expect, would loose one or two tens of rubbles, which, by the way, was compensated to him by his favorable position.  He also was a factor specializing in helping reach Jews to put their children into real college and womenfs ministry gymnasium where Jews were accepted only in the five percent quote of a total number of a student body.   A prospective student studied at home a whole year in order to get into the preparation courses, and him or her Bibler visits for a several days, for which he, of course, would receive an amount of money equals to an annual salary of any other private tutor.  He was the only one who new which questions were asked during the examination, and could let the parents know what mark their sons received for the dictation part of the exam or other.  In the morning he accompanies an instructor to gymnasium, tells him about all city news to show everybody, for marketing himself, as if he is his friend.  He also was a life insurance agent, in short, in the sphere of people-matching displayed great talents, but by no means in pedagogy.

A member of the college faculty Gershengorn had a photo shop, was seen in the college only when he did not have any work at his shop; very often would leave the school when his client called him, used to take bribes,  mercilessly beat his students, he looked more like a stock marked trader than a pedagogue.  The third, Iliya Rubinshtain, had a private womenfs college in his ownership registered in his wifefs name, a person, in general, inoffensive, impeccably honest, with a great baggage of knowledge.  The Fourth, Levin, always was pushed around by the elder students, they drove him over the edge, to madness, and consequently he left his job.  These pedagogical brotherhood, unprincipled, without any ideals, no class, strange to the literature, to a vibrant printed word, a bunch of liars, roguish, hypocritical, claimed to belong to the intellectual class, stand out in the Jewish masses with their external emblems of their own highness: the instructors of the state Jewish schools wore a uniform – vitsmundir, cockarde and the instructorfs emblem in their uniform caps decorated with a velvet cap-band.  During the official tsarfs holidays, the director used to wear tryokhugolka and a short sword with galloon decorations.  Gorodovoys saluted him (gave respect by a way of putting two fingers to the visor of their service caps).

I repeat that all these tawdry, glazed official brotherhood did not appealed to me, and I kept away from it.  I could not coup with concealed narrow-mindedness and overwhelming petty bourgeoisie, with this commercialism during the unbelievably high social ascend, on the eve of the first 1905 revolution. When the students of more advanced classes from real college were going from one to the other educational institution to relieve the instructors of their responsibilities, my coward colleagues ran away.  I was the only one who left and explained the arrived chiefs of the strike, that among the students there are many children, and it would be very dangerous to let them alone outside in such turbulent time, and with that they agreed. 

  Several months after, a group of thugs, acting under the socialism banner, trying to give their criminal acts a political motives with all means, arrived in the hamlet Chudnov, made an attempt of armed robbery during a daylight on the local post-telegraph office, killed a clerk there after that a shooting with the guards broke out, and the thugs fled, without were able to get money.  They fled on two carriages, waiting for them not far from the place where the crime scene took place.  The police of the local sherifffs office, which headed the local, municipal administration, being dead drunk during that time, was sleeping with a sleep of a just, and, have sobered only in the morning, set off to chase the criminals who, by that time, left no trace.  The police arrested one of the cab drivers who assisted the criminals with his horse carriage service. Michel Baran, who directly negotiated with the plotters, after understood, that he got into the tight corner, gave to the police hundred rubles in banknotes and fled to America.  The police arrested some innocent and not imprecated to the case people who as well paid them off.

In a sorrow search of the criminals, what was strictly demanded by the provincial and government authorities, the police in an expiation of its criminal negligence, stopped on the thought to bring to an account the young people, who tried to prevent the Jewish girl from converting to Christianity or even for kidnapping her and whom, in its case, police portrayed as political agitators.  To find my son was not so difficult, since I occupied an official place on which my son referred during his first arrest in the Chudnov hamlet.  To justify its accusations, the police presented to its servant my son, a simple-hearted German woman Klein, as one of the robbers, who as if stopped, as was determined later,  in one of  the motels, where she worked during that time.  Klein, to please the police, recognized the son and the local prosecutor, a friend and boon companion of the local sherifffs office, gave the case green light.  Have arrived in Chudnov, I went into each house of this relatively large hamlet, collected extensive materials, had a meeting with the police and a prosecutor, who turned out, as one would expect, to be far from knowing many details of this case, and addressed with a lengthy request to the public prosecutor of Zhitomirfs regional court, where  I pointed out on the outrageous facts of connivance, bribery, failing to take appropriate steps leading to the arrest of the plotters of the crime, on false testimony of the witness Klein, on the wrong acts of investigator, etc., while my poor son was transferred from one prison to another in Volin and Podoliya with a final destination of Lukyanovskay prison in Kiev.  The chief investigator of Vinnitsa city Romanchyuk, a quite decent man, conducted his own investigation to determine a place where my son stayed when the armed robbery took place, regardless documented testimonies of witnesses which I presented to him, witnesses, he interrogated witnesses , neighbors, acquaintances, colleagues, among which was a venerable director, a colleague, who during his visit in my apartment met my son, testified that he absolutely does not know him.  Later he justified himself by saying that for him as a tsarfs servant is not allowed to have any connection with political cases.  This over-flew the cup of my perturbation and indignation, but there was nothing I could do.  I went to Zhitomir where I was received by the public prosecutor who turned to be, as an exception to the rule, a very liberal man, and during our conversation he said that the rights of the judicial power were very restricted and advised me to turn to the state municipal administration.  I concluded, that he was intrigued by this case and that my substantial request, with practically irrefutable facts, breathing with a deep indignation and truthfulness, made on him an impression which brought him to my side. 

Several months later, a group of thugs, acting under the socialism banner, trying by all means to give their criminal acts a political motives, arrived in the hamlet of Chudnov, made an armed robbery attempt during a daylight on the local post-telegraph office, killed a clerk and after a shooting with guards broke out the thugs fled with no money.  They escaped on two horse carriages waiting for them not far from the place where the crime scene took place.  The police of the local sherifffs office, which headed the local municipal administration, being dead drunk during that time was sleeping with a sleep of a just, and, have sobered only to the morning, sat off to chase the criminals who, by that time, left no trace.  The police arrested one of the cab drivers who assisted the criminals with his horse carriage service. Michel Baran, who directly negotiated with the plotters, understood, that he got into a tight corner, gave the police hundred rubles in banknotes and fled to America.  The police arrested some innocent and not imprecated to the case people who as well paid off to get off the hook.

In a sorrow search for the criminals, which was strictly demanded by the provincial and government authorities, the police in an expiation of its criminal negligence, stopped on the thought to bring to the accounts the young people, who tried to prevent the Jewish girl from converting to Christianity or even tried to kidnap her.  In this case the police portrayed the young men as political agitators.  To find my son was not so difficult, since I occupied an official place to which my son referred during his first arrest in the hamlet of Chudnov.  To justify its accusations, the police presented to its servant, a simple-hearted German woman Klein,  my son as one of the robbers who as if stopped, as was determined later,  in one of  the motels, where she worked during that time.  Klein, to please the police, recognized the son and the local prosecutor, a friend and boon companion of the local sherifffs office, gave the case green light.  Have arrived in Chudnov, I went into each house of this relatively large hamlet, collected extensive materials, had a meeting with the police and a prosecutor, who turned out, as one would expect, to be far from knowing many details of this case, and addressed with a lengthy request to the public prosecutor of Zhitomirfs regional court, where  I pointed out on the outrageous facts of connivance, bribery, failure to take appropriate steps leading to the arrest of the plotters of the crime, on the false testimony of the witness Klein, on the wrong acts of investigator, etc., while my poor son was transferred from one prison to another in Volin and Podoliya with a final destination of Lukyanovskay prison in Kiev.  The chief investigator of the city of Vinnitsa Romanchyuk, a quite decent man, conducted an investigation to determine the place where my son stayed when the armed robbery took place, interrogated, regardless documented testimonies of witnesses which I presented to him, witnesses, neighbors, acquaintances, colleagues, among which was a venerable director, a colleague, who during one his visit of my apartment met my son, testified that he absolutely did not know him.  Later he admitted himself by saying that for him as a tsarfs servant it is not allowed to have any connection with political cases.  This overfilled the cup of my perturbation and indignation, but there was nothing I could do.  I went to Zhitomir and was received by the public prosecutor there who turned to be, as an exception to the rules, a very liberal man, and during our conversation he said that the rights of the judicial power were very restricted and advised me to turn to the state municipal administration.  I concluded, that he was intrigued by this case and that my substantial request, with practically irrefutable facts, breathing with a deep indignation and truthfulness, made on him an impression which brought him to my side.  I began sending many requests on the names of the Volinsk and Podolsk gubernators and the chief of the region.  The administration powers the lowest and highest during that strongly reactionary time after the first revolution of 1905, when all gifted freedoms were evoked, when instead of constitutions there were executions, had extensive special legislative rights, acted according to the order issued from above, according to its own decisions, regardless any existing law, any existing jurisprudence.  The sonfs case was moved to the Kievsky military-regional court, despite a complete absence of evidences, more less reasonable facts.  The public defender specializing in political cases Yuri Isakovitch Lesh, voluntarily took this case, the defense of my son.  Many defense lawyers acting from the desire to succeed, to become famous, to get into Government Duma took political cases without any rewards.  Many witnesses on the prosecutor and defense sides were called to give their testimonies.  It is worth to note, that the main witness – the German lady Klein, who was pressed by the police to give her evidence against my son, changed her previous testimonies in the court.  I pointed out to the court that she commuted with the police, and that, Luterant by her religion, she took an oath with an Ortodox priest, but the court calmed me down. 

The hearing of the case started on the six of March, 1907, and continued for three days, the defend lawyers of other accused, also innocent victims, gave their testimonies, and, finally, after the hot debates between two sides, after 8-10 hours of the members of the court summit, when minutes seemed as days, all accused received not guilty verdict which was met with a loud and cheerful approval of all present in the court.  There are moments in our lives which get deeply engraved in our memories.  There were no end to our happiness, our joy; my son was saved, was torn away from the strong grip of the claws of Rossiyskyfs authoritative rule and the police-administrative tyranny.  The son prepared to his admission exams, but the gubernator of Podolia count Yeiler refused in the issuing of a behavior and reliability reliance certificate, without which one could not move any further.  I appealed to the highest institution, for that I received a reprove of the police chief Khrutsky, latter executed by fire squad:  How is it even possible to complain about the governor.  My appeals were satisfied and the son went to Kiev to hold his examinations, but the destiny decided to send us one more hard test:  the bandits-expropriators made an armed robbery on a jewelry store belonging to some Bokshteina in the center of Kiev.  They took money and killed the ownerfs son who tried to resist the robbery attempt.  The police made many searches and came across the sonfs apartment, as a registered gmalinah in the homicide department and arrest the son.  I immediately left for Kiev, had a very long discussion with a zhandarm officer about the arrest of my son, and was promised that my son would be released quickly.  And soon enough, in a couple of days, he was released and went back home to the Vinnitsa city, having lost his right to hold the admission examinations.

The traveling and the troubles I went through helping my son significantly impacted my, without this, very difficult financial situation, as a breadwinner of a big family.  The relationship with my fellow workers, my colleagues in the college, who did not only, gave me any moral support  in the case with my son but tried to  set, incite my superiors against me, significantly  intensified.  The thing is that I have seized the opportunity of arrival to Vinnitsa the curators of Kievsky educational region, professor Zilov, made a request to him to permanently appoint me to the occupied position.  The chancellor office of the curator requested the inspector of the public educational institutions, under whose jurisdiction was the Jewish college, and here my dear colleagues presented him a regulation, according to which the instructor in the government Jewish college could be only a person who graduated from an instructorfs educational institution and my request was declined.  My absence, I was on the trip about my sonfs case, facilitated this decision.  I decided to transfer in another city and appealed with my requested directly to the okrug, bypassing the middle authorities and in motivation gave the appropriate characteristic to this temple of knowledge and his highest priests, where the adult students during the class hours played in the dvornikfs lodge, drank alcogol beverages and did anything they wanted in the present of an instructor.  An object of their hooligan actions was a young instructor, to whom they have done all kinds of mean tricks in the school and was pushed around on the street.  After his fruitless attempts to find a help, protection, he left the school. 

The college was disbanded, and I was transferred to the city of Ostrog in Vilnskoy province.  The provincial, backward, dirty, poor small town made on me a heavy impression.  One upon a time it was a residential place of an appanage prince, and now it was distinguished by its only classical gymnasium, attracting attention not only near by cities but that of distant ones.  They had only in small numbers: the tsarfs government was against secondary education, but and any other one.  It though encouraged the trade schools.  The predominant population of the town was Jewish, terribly poor, unbelievably inert and dull, backward.  I stopped in one Jewish house.  The holly Saturday comes.  The proprietor came back from the synagogue, the family sat for the supper table and went to bed; the candles went off, pitch darkness; on the streets no lamps, no  lights.  I lighted a lamp and on the very next day the rumors started spreading around, talks of the town, that the newly arrived the new teacher is a goy (a person of a different religion) meshumed (baptized Jew) apostate.  In the morning I was looking for the water-closed everywhere:  behind the houses empty fields where the town people relieve themselves on the fresh air, peacefully sit, talk about their personal problems, greeted by the acquaintances, right here are free nightmen – pigs.  The salary was not paid for month and was given in parts, according to the funds received for maintenance of the school from the Rovenskoy merchant board according to the candle dues.  I am myself was leaving like Lomonosov, borrowed and sent to my family.

The college director Tanhkhum Abovitch Zhebin turned out to be a typical village merchant, a religious Jew, who visited the synagogue every Saturday.  Warned in advance by my Vinnitsafs colleagues, who were quick to give their appropriate recommendation about me, he met me cold, formally when I came strait to the college where I stayed over night as I did not have enough money to stop in a hotel; on the next day I hired a room.  Our strained relationship was further aggravated by the fact that in his disagreement with a teacher of a preparation course Moicey Tolpin, a pitiful man,  I took the side of the latter, the side of the weak one.  When he had to take some time to visit his sick parent, his spouse with their infant child on her hands had to stay in the department and teach during his absence.  Everything was managed like at home.  I, as expected, made a sarcastic joke of this scene.  The visiting Ostrog Volinsky Vitse-gubernator the baron Shtakelhberg, after his college visit, left very content with the patriotic songs which the students of the preparation class sang out for him.  I gave the instructor an advice to take an advantage of this and he, under the boronfs protection, was affirmed in the occupied him position despite the fact that the almighty baron director tried to prevent this by his all possible means.  He returned me this favor by waiving a substantial amount of money for keeping some mythical relative in the hospital.  Independently of the official list which was in the possession of every instructor and civil servant, the authorities kept conduitnys information.  I was considered to be a not reliable element because of my writings in the local newspaper as according to my nature and moral principles I could not close my eyes on evil and injustice which was taking place around me. The removal of inspector Favorov in Vinnitsa, the disbandment of the VInnitsafs Jewish college because of to my initiative did not speak to my advantage.  After multiple clashes with the director on the bases of his monopole control of all benefits of the honorable order preserver in the college the militiaman Zushmana, from whom I brought some money and on the demand of the director replied with a categorical refusal (?P|u }~sy |{~ru~yz xpruty} ~p ru }~|yy y} ru }y|uz v~s q|yu| y|yp }y|yy~up H}p~p, {s xp~| ~u{|{ tu~us  y ~p uqrp~y xprutus ruy| {pusyu{y} {px}.)?. 

After serving on academic year, I once again began petition about my transferring and was appointed to Starokonstantinov, the chief town of uyezd in Volinsky district,   though a provincial town but more civilized which made a quite positive impression.  The director Vaslavsky, informed by my Ostrogfs colleguege, accepted me cold and formally as well.  Salary was paid on time.  The college had a good financial resources, capital, donated by a local wealthy man.  From the interest occurred on this capital every pour student in the college once a year was receiving a free wardrobe and shoes.  As a member of the pedagogical union, I took an advantage of my right to keep a watchful eye on that the use of the capital was exactly in accordance with the will of the donor.  This fact as expected caused   a discontent of the director, who tried to cut a big part of the money to himself. The wardrobe and shoes have to be tailored, thus there was plenty of room to the theft. ` r|p| uwu}u~u qyu yx st{z pr.

Burden by loneliness, torn away from my family, at the time when I was still leaving in Vinnitsa, I transferred my daughter Berta from the Vinnitsa City College to the Starokonstantinovsk one, but she succumbed to the typhus.  I placed her in the only one city clinic with a hospice according to that time name, for the crippled, handicapped, touched, homeless, mental patients.  The latter ones very often caused uproars and terrorized the rest of the patients in the clinic.  Doctor Roshin, a highly intellectual man, good-natured person, attended the clinic only once a week.  With my appearance, he was forced to attend the clinic more often: I simply followed him.  There were no nurses, orderlies of any kind: they were substituted by the cook and the cleaning lady and no care for the patients was taken.  I settled in the clinic, in the given to my daughter a separate ward and in my free from the teaching hours I spent at her bed, went through other wards, stopped by the kitchen, was keeping order.  She spent in the clinic two month and went home.

 Carrying about the fate of my elder children, who already grew up, having a deep desire to give them a professional education, I, after undergone many troubles, gained my way that the eldest daughter Lyuba was accepted on doctorfs medical assistant courses specializing in gynecology in the Kiev city, my younger daughter Esfir went to the similar courses in Odessa.  I finally obtained a certificate of my low income, naively assuming that this would give them an advantage to get into some kind of a dormitory, hostel.   Despite my very modest financial resources, at the beginning, I was able to support them, but after some time that was simply impossible for me to do, and, besides this, at that time, after the adoption of a gifted by the Nicolas gBloodyh dock-tailed constitution, after the first revolution of 1905, the wave of the Jewish pogroms took place and an outright biting of the freely thinking inteligencia in general.  They were forced to leave schools, where they not only experienced hunger but were concerned for their dignity and their lives.   The pogroms, which started with an initiative and with blessing of the tsarfs government, a wild outburst of the black-sotnia under the banner of the Union of the Russian People which undertook the great mission to defend the throne and root out sedition with steel and fire, destroyed the welfare of the hundreds of thousands people.  Scattered throughout the vast expanses of the Russian terrain the wave of pogroms, on one hand, and dragoons headed by the colonel Min, count Siversom, duke Penenkamp, Dubasov etc. on the other, had a goal to exterminate unreliable inteligencia and conscious and volatile part of the worker class to strengthen autocracy once and for all.  By the proscription lists of low-life, base provocateurs, guards, sleuths, informers, who were well reworded, people were executed without any due process of the low, and many more were whipped, lashed, mutilated and disfigured for life.  In Moscow, on Presn a police officer shot doctor Voronov, who rendered his medical assistance to the revolutionaries, for the act which is a moral and professional responsibility of an every doctor.  The officer was promoted to a higher rank in his service, to the rank of a policemaister.  A street-cleaner killed Bauman, who helped to free political prisoners, for that he received a reword, a samovar.  A completely innocent student who looked out of a window was dragged outside, lashed until he dyed and was abandoned like carrion.  And only a hand full of fragments of this wild bacchanalia, which took place right before the eyes of all civilized Europe, was noted and registered by the press.  Unbelievably hard and terrifying this time was.  The financial problems, moral burden let themselves feel at their full extend.  The eldest daughter Lyuba was trying hard to help the family since my salary of forty rubles was far too short from what a family needed: she had a tutoring job and   worked in a store until, finally, have gotten in touch with her close friend a young man who sent her a shifskart, on the 31st of December, 1910, immigrated to the North America where in the Pittsburgh city she married him.  I, misfortunate farther, was even deprived a chance to say a farewell to her, tell her some words of advice.  My second daughter Esfir participated in amateur performances, worked in a Zoldenberg gallanteria store in Nemirov, married Moisey Toevitch Binshtoke and left with him for Bukhara, where my eldest son served in Azov-Donetsk Bank.